Cell Proliferation Biomarker.

The AroCell TK 210 ELISA kit is a valuable biomarker for tumor cell turnover that aids in prognosis and monitoring therapy in subjects with hematological malignancies and different types of solid tumors such as breast, prostate, and ovary. 

AroCell TK 210 ELISA

AroCell TK 210 ELISA is a quantitative immunoassay kit for the determination of human Thymidine Kinase 1 (TK1) protein concentration measured in a blood sample. The measurement of TK1 can be used as an aid in the management of cancer patients, in conjunction with other clinical and diagnostic procedures. TK1 levels at diagnosis can signal whether the tumor is local or spread and how aggressive the disease is. AroCell TK 210 ELISA also makes it possible to follow treatment outcomes and relapses in people with hematological and solid tumors. AroCell TK 210 ELISA provides valuable information that can be used for predicting and monitoring patients to help clinicians optimize treatment, monitoring, and follow-up.

The ELISA format is simple and robust, requires no unique instrumentation to perform, and can easily be incorporated into standard laboratory processes. By utilizing monoclonal antibodies specific to the TK 210 epitope of TK1, AroCell TK 210 ELISA brings improved sensitivity and specificity to the assay of this key biomarker. The kit protocol includes a pre-treatment step of the samples using a proprietary sample dilution buffer that releases TK1 from its aggregates and makes it more readily accessible for accurate measurements. The method measures both active and inactive TK1 in blood.

AroCell TK 210 ELISA was registered for CE marking 2015 and can be easily adapted to an automated analytical instrument.

TK 210 ELISA is manufactured by AroCell AB.

Thymidine Kinase 1

Thymidine Kinase 1 (TK1) is an enzyme that is up-regulated in proliferating cells and peaks during of the S-phase of the cell cycle. The enzyme concentration is very low in resting cells. Thymidine Kinase 1 has become increasingly interesting in cancer research, drug development, and clinical oncology as it has been found that elevated levels of TK1 in blood is associated with the presence of malignancies. A malignant tumor has high cell division, and TK1 leaks out into the blood as a consequence of cell disruption spontaneously or triggered by therapy.

Therefore, a sensitive routine test for measuring TK1 protein is of great value in patient monitoring, clinical research, and drug discovery and development. Thymidine Kinase 1 is a valuable biomarker in subjects with many forms of cancer, including leukemia, lymphoma, breast, prostate, lung, sarcoma, and colon cancer patients. 

Find more information

The application of the AroCell TK 210 ELISA and the use of TK1 have been successfully used and described in several publications.

Clinical Evaluation

The application of the AroCell TK 210 ELISA and the use of TK1 have been successfully used and described in several publications.

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1. Zhou, J. et al. (2013). The Proliferation Marker Thymidine Kinase 1 in Clinical Use. Review. Molecular and Clinical Oncology 1: 28.

2. Alegre, M.M. et al. (2012). Thymidine Kinase 1 Upregulation is an Early Event in Breast Tumor Formation. Journal of Oncology. Volume 2012, Article ID 575647,  5 pages.

3. Guan, H. et al. (2009). Thymidine Kinase 1 Expression in Atypical Ductal Hyperplasia Significantly Differs from Usual Ductal Hyperplasia and Ductal Carcinoma In-Situ: A Useful Tool in Tumor  Therapy Management. Mol Med Rep. 2(6): 923-9.

4. Alegre, M.M. et al. (2013). Thymidine Kinase 1: A Universal Marker for Cancer. Cancer and Clinical Oncology. 2(1): 2013.

5. Bjöhle,  J. et al. (2013). Serum thymidine kinase activity compared with CA 15-3 in locally advanced and metastatic breast cancer within a randomized trial. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 139(3): 751-8.

6. Chen, F. et al. (2013). Serum thymidine kinase 1 levels predict cancer-free survival following neoadjuvant, surgical and adjuvant treatment of patients with locally advanced breast cancer. Molecular and Clinical Oncology.  1: 894-902.

7. He, Q. et al. (2006). Thymidine kinase 1 in serum predicts increased risk of distant or loco-regional recurrence following surgery in patients with early breast cancer.  Anticancer Research 26: 4753-4760.

8. Jagarlamudi, K.K. et al. (2015). Breast and prostate cancer patients differ significantly in their serum Thymidine kinase 1 (TK1) specific activities compared with those hematological malignancies and blood donors: implications of using serum TK1 as a biomarker. BMC Cancer 15:66.

9. Kumar, J.K. et al. (2016). A clinical evaluation of the TK 210 ELISA in sera from breast cancer patients demonstrates high sensitivity and specificity in all stages of disease. Tumor Biology. 37: 11937.


10. Sung H, Ferlay J, Siegel RL, et al. Global Cancer Statistics 2020: GLOBOCAN Estimates of Incidence and Mortality Worldwide for 36 Cancers in 185 Countries. CA: A Cancer Journal for Clinicians. 2021;71(3):209-249. doi:10.3322/caac.21660.

11. Jagarlamudi, K. K., Zupan, M., Kumer, K., Fabjan, T., Hlebič, G., Eriksson, S., et al. (2019). The Combination of AroCell TK 210 ELISA with Prostate Health Index or Prostate-specific Antigen Density Can Improve the Ability to Differentiate Prostate Cancer from Noncancerous Conditions. Prostate 79 (8), 856–863.

12. Li, S., Zhou, J., Wang, Y., Zhang, K., Yang, J., Zhang, X., et al. (2018). Serum Thymidine Kinase 1 Is Associated with Gleason Score of Patients with Prostate Carcinoma. Oncol. Lett. 16 (5), 6171–6180. Epub 2018/10/20PubMed PMID: 30333882; PubMed Central PMCID: PMCPMC6176382. doi:10.3892/ol.2018. 9345

13. Steineck, G. TK1 as prognostic/predictive marker in metastatic prostate cancer. AroCell internal report (70-19CL21001-01- technical).



14. Jagarlamudi, K.K. and Shaw M. (2018). Thymidine kinase 1 as a tumor biomarker: technical advances offer new potential to an old biomarker. Biomark. Med. 12(9): 1035-1048.

15. Tribukait, B. Dynamics of Serum Thymidine Kinase 1 at the First Cycle of Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy Predicts Outcome of Disease in Estrogen-Receptor-Positive Breast Cancer. Cancers 2021, 13, 5442.

16. Tribukait, B. Early prediction of pathologic response to neoadjuvant treatment of breast cancer: use of a cell-loss metric based on serum thymidine kinase 1 and tumour volume. BMC Cancer 2020, 20, 440.

17. Steineck, G. TK1 based malignant- cell disruption metric based on Promix clinical trial. AroCell internal report 2020 (70-1RE20001).


18. Jaffe ES, Harris NL, Stein H, et al., editors. World Health Organization classification of tumours. Pathology and genetics of tumours of haematopoietic and lymphoid tissue. Lyon: IARC Press; 2001.

19. A predictive model for aggressive non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma. The International Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma Prognostic Factors Project. N Engl J Med 1993; 329:987–994.

20. Sehn LH, Berry B, Chhanabhai M, et al. The revised International Prognostic Index (R-IPI) is a better predictor of outcome than the standard IPI for patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma treated with R-CHOP. Blood 2007;109;1857–1861.

21. Suzuki K, Terui Y, Yokoyama M, et al. Prognostic value of high thymidine kinase activity in patients with previously untreated diffuse large B-cell lymphoma treated by rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisolone. Leuk Lymphoma. 2013; 54:2412–2417.

22. Erisksson S. Thymidine kinase 1 in diffuse large B-cell Lymphoma revisited in the Rituximabera. AroCell internal report (70-09CL22001-01).


23. Sung H, Ferlay J, Siegel RL, et al. Global Cancer Statistics 2020: GLOBOCAN Estimates of Incidence and Mortality Worldwide for 36 Cancers in 185 Countries. CA: A Cancer Journal for Clinicians. 2021;71(3):209-249. doi:10.3322/caac.21660.

24. Zhu, C.,Zhang, N., Zhong, A., Xiao, K., Lu, R., Guo, L., et al. (2022). A combined strategy of TK1, HE4 and CA 125 shows better diagnostic performance than risk of ovarian malignancy algorithm (ROMA)in ovarian carcinoma. Clin Chim Acta 524, 43–50.

25. Kiran J. TK1 concentrations as prognostic marker in patients with ovarian cancer. AroCell internal report (70-20CL22002-01- technical).


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