Typhoid fever is a water and food-borne infectious disease caused by the bacterium, Salmonella enterica. The World Health Organization identifies typhoid fever as a serious public health issue. There are an estimated 11-20 million new cases reported annually, including over 128,000-161,000 deaths, predominantly among preschoolers and school-age children.
Typhoid fever is sometimes difficult to distinguish from other diseases that cause fever, so clinicians make a clinical diagnosis with the aid of laboratory-based diagnostics. In areas where the disease is commonly found, an effective typhoid test must be sensitive, specific, easily accessible, and simple to handle with a short turnaround time.