Other solid tumors

Solid tumors are oncology malignancies that form a discrete tumor mass in, for example, the breast, prostate, kidney, ovary, esophagus, and lung. There is a clinical need to monitor the effect of the therapy to optimize the management of the disease in many cancers. AroCell is selectively exploring the role of TK1 as biomarker in solid tumors.

Solid tumors are oncology malignancies that form a discrete tumor mass in, for example, the breast, prostate, kidney, ovary, esophagus, and lung. This is in contrast to lymphoproliferative malignancies such as leukemia, which may diffusely infiltrate a tissue without forming a mass. In general, clinicians apply a multidisciplinary approach to treating solid tumors. This includes surgery, interventional radiology, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy. There is a clinical need to monitor the effect of the therapy to optimize the management of the disease and reduce the risk for exposing patients for unnecessary cytotoxic treatment.

The rate of proliferation and disruption is an important parameter to measure when monitoring the efficacy of therapy in cancer patients. Ki-67, an immunohistological biomarker, has often been performed using tissue biopsies. However, the disadvantage of histological biomarkers dependent on tissue biopsies is that limited amounts of tissue can be studied compared to liquid biopsies, such as serum samples, in which proliferation biomarkers such as TK1 provide an indication of the total disease activity in the subject.

Elevated serum TK1 have been found in many solid tumors including gastric¹, ovary², cervical³, esophagus4, lung5,6, prostate7,8, and breast5,7. Elevated serum TK1 levels post-surgery have been associated with poorer outcomes9.

AroCell TK 210 ELISA provides new opportunities for studying cellular proliferation, tumor cell disruption, and therapy response in subjects with solid tumors by providing a simple, robust, and reproducible test based on serum sample. In addition, AroCell TK 210 ELISA has been shown to be more sensitive using serum from subjects with solid tumors70. In breast cancer patients it was nearly twice as sensitive with similar specificity and a higher AUC (area under the curve)10.

Receiver operating characteristic analyses of serum TK 210 ELISA and TK1 activity assays for distinguishing breast cancer patients from healthy subjects10.

  1. Liu Y, Ling Y, Qi Q et al. Changes in serum Thymidine Kinase 1 levels during chemotherapy correlate with objective response in patients with advanced gastric cancer. Ther. Med. 2, (2011), 1177–1181.
    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3440839/
  1. Fujiwaki R, Hata K, Nakayama K et al. Thymidine Kinase in epithelial ovarian cancer: relationship with the other pyrimidine pathway enzymes. J. Cancer 99(3) (2002), 328–335. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11992400
  1. Wang Y, Jiang X, Dong S, Shen J et al. Serum TK1 is a more reliable marker than CEA and AFP for cancer screening in a study of 56,286 people. Cancer Biomark. 16(4) (2016), 529–536. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27002755
  1. Chen Y, Ying M, Chen Y et al. Serum Thymidine Kinase 1 correlates to clinical stages and clinical reactions and monitors the outcome of therapy of 1247 cancer patients in routine clinical settings. J. Clin. Oncol.15(4) (2010), 359–368.
    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20354751
  1. Alegre MM, Weyant MJ, Bennett DT et al. Serum Detection of Thymidine Kinase 1 as a Means of Early Detection of Lung Cancer. Anticancer Res. 34 (2014), 2145–2152. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24778016
  1. Lou X, Zhou J, Ma H, Xu S, He E, Skog S, Wang H. The half-life of serum Thymidine Kinase 1 concentration is an important tool for monitoring surgical response in patients with lung cancer: a meta-analysis. Test Mol. Biomarkers21(8) (2017), 471–478.
    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28817340
  1. Jagarlamudi KK, Hansson LO, Eriksson S. Breast and prostate cancer patients differ significantly in their serum Thymidine Kinase 1 (TK1) specific activities compared with those hematological malignancies and blood donors: implications of using serum TK1 as a biomarker. BMC Cancer15(66) (2015), 7–9.
    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25881026
  1. Jagarlamudi KK, Eriksson S, Zupan M et al. AroCell TK 210 ELISA may complement Pro PSA and the Prostate Health Index in differentiating non-cancerous from cancerous conditions in prostate disease. Poster presented at the UK National Cancer Research Institute Congress, Liverpool.BT Convention Center, Liverpool, UK, 5–8 November 2017.
    http://abstracts.ncri.org.uk/abstract/arocell-tk-210-elisa-may-complement-pro-psa-and-the-prostate-health-index-in-differentiating-non-cancerous-from-cancerous-conditions-in-prostate-disease/
  1. He Q, Fornander T, Johansson H et al. Thymidine Kinase 1 in serum predicts increased risk of distant or loco-regional recurrence following surgery in patients with early breast cancer. Anticancer Res. 26 (2006), 4753–4760.
    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17214336
  1. Jagarlamudi, K.K. et al. A clinical evaluation of the TK 210 ELISA in sera from breast cancer patients demonstrates high sensitivity and specificity in all stages of disease. Tumor Biol. 37(9) (2016), 11937-11945.
    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5080325/